Ambiguous Loss: Coping with the Grief of Unresolved Situations

Dealing with loss is an inevitable part of life, but what happens when the loss is not clear-cut?
By illume Editorial Team
Last updated: Jul 19, 2023
10 min read
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Ambiguous loss, also known as loss without closure, can be a deeply challenging and complex experience. In this blog, we will explore the concept of ambiguous loss, its impact on mental health, and strategies to cope with this unique type of grief. Join us as we navigate the grieving process and offer support for those experiencing feelings of ambiguous loss. 

Understanding Ambiguous Loss

Ambiguous loss refers to a type of loss that lacks clear resolution or closure. It occurs when a person or a situation is physically absent, yet emotionally present, or when a person is physically present but psychologically absent. This kind of grief can arise from various circumstances, such as the loss of a loved one due to a traumatic brain injury, where the person’s physical presence remains, but their personality and cognitive abilities have significantly changed. Similarly, it can arise from a family member who is struggling with addiction, where they may physically be present but emotionally disconnected from their loved ones. Ambiguous loss can also arise from situations like divorce, immigration, or the disappearance of a loved one, where the person or the situation is physically absent, but the emotional impact remains. 

Types of Loss Associated with Ambiguous Loss:

Ambiguous Loss in Relationships:

This type of loss can occur in various relationship dynamics, such as divorce or separation. When a significant relationship ends or changes, the ambiguity arises from the emotional bond that remains despite the physical absence of the person. The loss of the relationship and the associated hopes and dreams can cause profound grief.

Ambiguous Loss in Caregiving:

Caregivers often experience ambiguous loss when caring for individuals with chronic illnesses, disabilities, or degenerative conditions. The person may still be physically present, but the loss is experienced as the decline in their abilities, personality, or cognitive function. The ongoing changes and uncertainties can result in ongoing grief and emotional distress for the caregiver.

Ambiguous Loss in Military Families:

Military families often face ambiguous loss when a loved one is deployed or missing in action. The absence of clear information about their whereabouts or well-being can create a unique form of grief. Families are left in a state of uncertainty, oscillating between hope and despair, making it challenging to navigate the grieving process.

Ambiguous Loss in Addiction:

Families and loved ones of individuals struggling with addiction often experience ambiguous loss. The person may be physically present but psychologically or emotionally absent due to the grip of addiction. This type of loss can bring feelings of guilt, shame, and confusion, as the person they once knew seems to vanish while still physically present.

Ambiguous Loss in Disasters:

Natural disasters, accidents, or acts of violence can lead to ambiguous loss when individuals go missing or are unaccounted for. The lack of closure and uncertainty about their fate can prolong the grieving process for families and loved ones.

Each type of loss brings its own set of challenges and requires specific strategies for coping and healing. Recognizing the type of loss you are experiencing can help you seek appropriate support and develop tailored coping mechanisms to navigate through the complexities of ambiguous loss.

The Impact on Mental Health

Ambiguous loss can take a toll on one’s mental health, as it challenges our ability to find closure and make sense of the situation. The uncertainty and conflicting emotions associated with this kind of loss can lead to anxiety, depression, and prolonged grief. The lack of resolution or clear understanding can leave individuals feeling stuck in a state of limbo, unable to fully process their emotions and move forward. It is essential to recognize the unique struggles faced by individuals experiencing ambiguous loss and offer them the support they need.

Coping Strategies for Ambiguous Loss

Acknowledge and Validate Feelings: Recognize that feelings of ambiguous loss are legitimate and normal. Allow yourself to experience a range of emotions without judgement. It is common to feel a mix of sadness, anger, guilt, and confusion when faced with ambiguous loss. Seek support from trusted friends, family, or a grief support group to share your feelings and gain validation. Talking openly about your emotions can help alleviate the burden and provide comfort. 

Educate Yourself

Learn more about the concept of ambiguous loss and its impact on the grieving process. Acquaint yourself with the work of experts like Dr. Pauline Boss, who coined the term ambiguous loss. Understanding the nature of this type of grief can help you navigate through the challenges more effectively. Educating yourself about ambiguous loss can also help you communicate your experience to others, fostering empathy and understanding. 

Seek Professional Help Consider seeking guidance from a therapist or counsellor experienced in ambiguous loss. They can provide you with the tools and coping strategies necessary to navigate this complex grief journey. Therapy can offer a safe space to process your emotions, gain insights into your unique situation, and develop resilience. A trained professional can help you develop effective strategies to manage the uncertainties and conflicting emotions associated with ambiguous loss. 

Create Rituals and Remembrance

Establishing rituals or engaging in activities to honour and remember the person or situation can provide a sense of closure and comfort. This could involve lighting a candle in memory, writing letters to express your feelings, or creating a memory box with items that remind you of your loved one or the unresolved situation. Find meaningful ways to honour your loss and maintain a connection. These rituals can serve as a source of comfort and a way to commemorate what was lost.

 Practice Self-Care

Self-care is crucial when coping with ambiguous loss. Engage in activities that bring you joy and relaxation. This could include exercise, meditation, spending time in nature, engaging in creative outlets, or pursuing hobbies that nourish your soul. Taking care of yourself physically, emotionally, and mentally is vital during the grieving process. Self-care acts as a buffer against the emotional toll of ambiguous loss, promoting overall well-being and resilience. 

Find Support

Connect with others who are experiencing similar types of loss. Join a support group, either in person or online, specifically tailored to ambiguous loss. Sharing experiences, insights, and challenges with others who understand can provide a sense of belonging and validation. Being part of a support group allows you to learn from others, gain perspective, and find solace in a community of individuals who are navigating similar journeys. Support groups offer a safe space to express your emotions, receive guidance, and develop coping strategies. 

Moving Forward Dealing with ambiguous loss can be an arduous journey, but it is important to remember that healing is possible. By acknowledging and understanding the unique challenges of ambiguous grief, seeking support, and practicing self-care, you can gradually navigate the grieving process and find a path towards healing and resilience. 


Ambiguous loss is a challenging and often misunderstood type of grief. It can disrupt our sense of closure and bring forth complex emotions. By learning about ambiguous loss, seeking support, and employing coping strategies, you can navigate this unique grieving process with greater resilience. Remember, you are not alone, and healing is possible. Reach out, seek support, and take care of yourself as you move forward on your journey of healing.